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Energy flowchart

U.S. Energy Use in 2018 Sets a Record

Find out where the United States gets its energy from—and how it uses it.

Americans used more energy in 2018 than in any other year, according to the most recent energy flowchart released by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. (Each year, the Laboratory releases energy flow charts that illustrate the nation’s consumption and use of energy.) Overall total energy consumption rose to 101.2 quadrillion BTU (or “quads”). The prior record, set in 2007, was 101.0 quads. Energy use went up by 3.6% from 2017, which also is the largest annual increase since 2010.

Americans used 3.5 quads (quadrillion BTU) more in 2018 than in 2017. A BTU, or British Thermal Unit, is a unit of measurement for energy; 3,400 BTUs is equivalent to about 1 kilowatt-hour.

The largest increases in energy supply came from natural gas, wind and solar energy. In 2018, wind use was up 0.18 quads (7.6%) and solar was up 0.18 quads (22%). Over the last decade (between 2008 and 2018), total renewable energy production has doubled, including a five-fold increase in wind power and a 48-fold increase in solar. Wind and solar combined now produce more electricity than hydroelectric power, which dominated renewable energy for decades.

Supply from natural gas increased by 3 quadrillion BTU, from 28 in 2017 to 31 in 2018, a 10.7% increase. This reflects a significant increase to electricity generation, where gas continues to displace coal. And 2018 had a warmer summer than 2017, requiring more electricity for air conditioning which drove up natural gas consumption. It also had a colder winter, which also increased gas demand in the residential sector.  

Energy flowchart

Coal consumption continued to fall in 2018 by 0.7 quads or 5%, due mainly to increases in natural gas and renewable use.

Biomass use was up by about 0.2 quads, or 5%, from 2017. Most the increase in biomass use was in the residential sector for heating. Biofuel use in transportation, which is dominated by ethanol/ gasoline, remained unchanged since 2017.

Petroleum use (oil) was up 0.7 quads or 2%, but barely budged in the dominant transportation sector. However, it rose substantially in the industrial sector. Although data is not yet available on specific uses within the sector, it is likely the result of increased manufacturing, petrochemical production, and refining of fuel for export.

All energy use results in some losses, shown on the charts as rejected energy. This energy most often takes the form of waste heat, such as the warm exhaust from automobiles and furnaces. The efficiency of the nation’s cars, lightbulbs and factories determines how much waste heat is produced and how much fuel and electricity can be put to productive use.

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