During the 1970s, as Japanese companies began eroding traditional western markets, the focus was on Just-In-Time and other rapid-cycle logistics and manufacturing techniques. In the 1980s, efforts shifted to product development and “Stage-Gate” was born (Robert Cooper, Winning at New Products, 1986). Initially, the emphasis was on moving away from “throwing designs over-the-wall to manufacturing.” By the early 1990s, leading companies had achieved rapid cycle
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